EDM Machining, Applications, and Generalities

EDM Machining

EDM Machining (Electrical Discharge Machining) is a machining system by chip removal for electrically conductive substances that makes use of exactly managed sparks produced among an electrode, generally, graphite which can be taken into consideration as the slicing device – and a workpiece, in the presence of a dielectric fluid.

The Lazarenko perfected this process and designed a circuit that bore their name and that included a sequence of discharges that were produced among both conductors divided from every other by a film of non-conductive liquid called a dielectric. Today, many EDM machines use a modern edition of the Lazarenko circuit.

EDM Differs from Most Chip Removal Machining Operations

In which the electrode extracts the cloth without having physical contact with the painting’s piece. this selection eliminates the pressure of the tool that is exerted, for example, with a milling machine or a grinding machine, and, for this reason, EDM can produce shapes that could destroy traditional cutting tools or that they might damage.


EDM is a machining method that makes use of thermal electricity, this is, the fabric is extracted through heat, which is delivered in the form of a spark by way of the electric glide between the electrode and the part. How does all this show up? permit’s first have a look at the important additives of the process in the figure underneath.

Pulsed electricity provides a command of the time limit and power of electrical charges, as well as the motion of the electrode relative to the workpiece. for a spark to shape, the electrode must constantly be separated from the workpiece by using a sure distance.

Beneath the impact of this electric subject, electrons and superb unfastened ions boost up to high speeds and speedy shape an ionized column of dielectric fluid that conducts energy.

When the spark is extinguished, the dielectric fluid de-ionizes becomes insulating again, and the quick decrease in temperature reason the gas bubble to implode, releasing vaporized material from the part, forming a cloud in the dielectric and leaving a small crater on the eroded surface of the piece.

Also Read: What is ELD(Electronic Logging Device)? Working, Features & Benefits

Applications and Generalities

EDM is employed to generate very small and precise components, along with large parts such as stamping dies for automobiles and components for the fuselage of aircraft.

All materials that undergo EDM machining must be electrically conductive or semiconductor, with no non-conductive cut zones.

These materials consider solidified and heat-cure steely, carbide, polycrystalline diamond, warm and frosty rolled steels, copper, bronze, and highest-temperature blends.

Advantages of EDM Machining:

  • It is an anti-contact method that does not produce vibration or cutting powers that permits the making of quite tiny, fragile, and hard molded parts.
  • Tighter tolerances, complex info, and best quality finishes can be achieved on a large reach of supplies that are complex or not possible to make with the conventional method.
  • Burr-save edges are generated.
  • Very firm metals may operate due to the action evaporates the metal rather than cutting it.
  • Explosive or burnable materials can be machined, the method takes place inside a liquid.
  • EDM machines prepared with a method perception purpose permit the making of complicated pieces with the least manager involution.

Disadvantages of EDM Machining:

  • It cannot be applied to non-conductive materials.
  • It has bad metal expulsion rates comparing to traditional chip removal machining methods.
  • Processing time is required to develop certain shapes of graphite electrodes. Furthermore, graphite is a brittle material, so the handling of the electrodes must be very careful.
  • After the process, a superficial layer of molten metal, fragile and of extreme hardness, usually remains, which must be eliminated in the parts that require resistance to fatigue.
  • The rough surface finish is not perfect, as it is rougher on flat faces than on vertical walls.

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